1.1 Background of the Problem
In this era globalization, English is very important as international language, and also English is used in many aspects such as social, economic, political, culture, education, and others.
In Indonesia, English as a foreign language and the government of Indonesia inserted English language in the school curriculum. It is very important for the students to operate computer, internet, and to improve various kinds of knowledge. That is one of the reasons that we have to study English more seriously and try to be able to speak it fluently.
There are some problems which are faced by students and teachers in teaching and learning English in Indonesia. One of problems faced by teacher is about the technique and method used for teaching English. But sometimes when student learn to English they do not pleased, that is why the students often got the difficulties in comprehending the lesson. The common problems are because they lack vocabulary, lack motivation in learning. So the teacher should make the learning activity in the class more interesting and enjoyable.
Based on the problem above, the writer tries to improve the students’ vocabulary mastering through whispering game. The reason why the writer uses this method because the students can enjoy and interest to do learning, comprehend the lesson or comprehend the vocabulary such as things in the classroom, part of body, animals, fruits, profession, tools of the kitchen and the other things. And students can improve their vocabulary mastering with game. By using whispering game, hopefully the students are more interested in learning activity because game can make the students enjoyable and comprehending the lesson vocabulary of the text.
Based on the previous research and experts’ theory the writer believes that game can be used to effectiveness, motivate and encourage students in vocabulary mastering, because they can speak vocabulary easily.
1.2 Identification of the problem
The identification of the problem as follow:
- Can whispering game be used to improve students’ vocabulary mastering at the second grade of SMP 1 Wanasalam.
- How can whispering game improving their vocabulary mastering?
1.2.1 Of the problem
Referring to the identification of problem, in this research the writer limits the problem in improving students’ vocabulary mastering through whispering game at the second grade of SMP 1 Wanasalam.
1.2.2 Statement of the research
Formulation of the problem in this research is “Can whispering game be used to improve students’ vocabulary mastering and how can whispering game b used to improve students’ vocabulary mastering at the second of SMP 1 Wanasalam?
1.3 The Aim of the research
The aim of the research is to find out whether whispering game can be used to improve students’ vocabulary mastering or not.
1.4 The advantages of the research
The uses of this research are:
- Theoretical use
This research as a contribution in teaching learning process, by giving the information how is the significant improvement of students’ vocabulary mastering through whispering game.
- Practical use
The use of this research later can be used to consider whether various learning activities especially whispering game is important in improving students’ vocabulary mastering and it uses an alternative material in teaching English.
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ASSUMPTION AND HYPOTHESIS
1. Definition of the terms
A person’s vocabulary is the set of words they are familiar with in a language. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge.
A form of audio post-production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device.
(the master): the source from which all copies will be produced ( via methods such as pressing, duplication or replication ). The format of choice these days is digital masters although analog masters, such as audio tapes, are still being used by the manufacturing industry and few engineers who have specialized themselves in analog mastering.
Divide the class into two teams. Line up the players. If there’s an odd number of players, one can be the teacher’s “helper”. The teacher or his helper whispers a message to the first person of both group A and group B. the game only starts when both players know the message. Then each player whispers the message to the next player in his group successively until the last player gets the message. The team which can repeat the message first and correctly receives a point. Start the game over with the second student of each group becoming the first ones in line.
A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as mahjong solitaire, or some Video Games).
Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulation or psychological role. According to Chris Crawford, the recruitment for player interaction puts activities such as jigsaw puzzles and solitaire “games” into the category of puzzles rather than games.
Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part or human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games.
THEORITICAL BACKGROUND, ASSUMPTION AND HYPOTHESIS
2.1 Definition of Teaching
Brown (2000, p.7) define “teaching as showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understanding”. It means that teaching is the process of transferred knowledge to the students’ that conduct by the teacher.
2.2 Teaching Vocabulary To Advanced Students: A Lexical Approach
2.2.1 Advanced Students and Their Needs
Advanced learners can generally communicate well, having learnt all the basic structures of the language. However, they need to broaden their vocabulary to express themselves more clearly and appropriately in a wide range of situations.
Students might even have a receptive knowledge of a wider range of vocabulary, which means they can recognize the item and recognize its meaning. Nevertheless, their productive use of a wide range of vocabulary is normally limited, and this is one of the areas that need greater attention. At this stage we are concerned not only with students understanding the meaning of words, but also being able to use them appropriately, taking into account factors such as oral / written use of the language; degree of formality, style and others, which we are going to detail in Part 2.
2.2.2 The Teaching of Vocabulary
Traditionally, the teaching of vocabulary above elementary levels was mostly incidental, limited to presenting new item as they appeared in reading or sometimes listening texts. This indirect teaching of vocabulary assumes that vocabulary expansion will happen through the practice of other language skills, which has been proved not enough to ensure vocabulary expansion.
Nowadays it is widely accepted that vocabulary teaching should be part of the syllabus, and taught in a well-planned and regular basis. Some authors, led by Lewis (1993) argue that vocabulary should be at the centre of language teaching, because ‘language consists of grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalized grammar’. We are going to discuss aspects of the ‘Lexical approach’ in Part 2.
There are several aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching vocabulary. The list below is based on the work of Gairns and Redman (1986):
· Boundaries between conceptual meaning: knowing not only what lexis refers to, but also where the boundaries are that separate it from words of related meaning (e.g. cup, mug, bowl).
· Polysemy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word from with several but closely related meanings (head: of a person, of a pin, of an organization).
· homonymy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form which has several meanings which are NOT closely related ( e.g. a file: used to put papers in or a tool).
· Homophyny: understanding words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings ( e.g. flour, flower).
· Synonymy: distinguishing between the different shades of meaning that synonymous words have ( e.g.. extend, increase, expand).
· Affective meaning: distinguishing between the attitudinal and emotional factors (denotation and connotation), which depend on the speakers attitude or the situation. Socio-cultural associations of lexical item is another important factor.
· Style, register, dialect: Being able to distinguish between different levels of formality, the effect of different contexts and topics, as well as differences in geographical variation.
· Translation: awareness of certain differences and similarities between the native and the foreign language (e.g. false cognates).
· Chunks of language: multi-word verbs, idioms, strong and weak collocations, lexical phrases.
· Grammar of vocabulary: learning the rules that enable students to build up different forms of the word or even different words from that word (e.g. sleep, slept, sleeping; able, unable; disability).
· Pronunciation: ability to recognize and reproduce items in speech.
The implication of the aspects just mentioned in teaching is that the goals of vocabulary teaching must be more than simply covering a certain number of words on a word list. We must use teaching techniques that can help realize this global concept of what it means to know a lexical item. And we must also go beyond that, gibing learner opportunities to use the items learnt and also helping them to use effective written storage systems.
Ø Memory and Storage System
Understanding how our memory works might help us create more effective ways to teach vocabulary. Research in the area, cited by Gairns (1986) offers us some insights into this process.
It seems that learning new items involve storing them first in our short-term memory, and afterwards in long-item memory. We do not control this process consciously but there seems to be some important clues to consider. First, retention in short-term memory is not effective if the number of chunks of information exceeds seven. Therefore, this suggests that in a given class we should nit aim at teaching more than this number. However, our long-term memory can hold any amount of information.
Research also suggests that our ‘mental lexicon’ is highly organized and efficient, and that semantic related items are stored together. Word frequency is another factor that affects storage, as the most frequently used items are easier to retrieve. We can use this information to attempt to facilitate the learning process, by grouping items of vocabulary in semantic fields, such as topics (e.g. types of frit). Oxford (1990) suggests memory strategies to aid learning, and these can be divided into:
· Creating mental linkages: grouping, associating, placing new words into a context;
· Applying images and sounds: using imagery, semantic mapping, using keywords and representing sounds in memory;
· Reviewing well, in a structured way;
· Employing action: physical response or sensation, using mechanical techniques.
The techniques just mentioned can be used to greater advantage if we can diagnose learning style preferences ( visual, aural, kinesthetic, tactile ) and make students aware of different memory strategies. Meaningful tasks however seem to offer the best answer to vocabulary learning, as they rely on students’ experiences and reality to facilitate learning. More meaningful tasks also require learners to analyse and process language more deeply, which should help them retain information in long-term memory.
Forgetting seems to be an inevitable process, unless learners regularly use items they have learnt. Therefore, recycling is vital, and ideally it should happen one or two days after the initial input. After that, weekly or monthly tests can check on previously taught items.
The way students store the items learned can also contribute to their success or failure in retrieving them when needed. Most learners simply list the items learnt in chronological order, indicating meaning with translation. This system is far from helpful, as items are de-contextualised, encouraging students to over generalize usage of them. It does not allow for additions and refinements nor indicates pronunciation.
Teacher can encourage learners to use other methods, using topics and categories to organize a notebook, binder or index cards. Meaning should be stored using English as much as possible, and also giving indication for pronunciation. Diagrams and word trees can also be used within this topic/categories organization. The class as a whole can keep a vocabulary box with cards, which can be used for revision/recycling regularly.
Organizing this kind of storage system is time-consuming and might not appeal to every learner. Therefore adapting their chronological lists to include headings for topics and a more complete definition of meaning would already be a step forward.
Ø Dealing with Meaning
In my opinion the most important aspect of vocabulary teaching for advanced learners is to foster learner independence so that learners will be able to deal with new lexis and expand their vocabulary beyond the end of the course. Therefore guided discovery, contextual guesswork and using dictionaries should be the main ways to deal with discovering meaning.
Guided discovery involve asking questions or offering examples that guide students to guess meanings correctly. In this way learners get involved in a process of semantic processing that helps learning and retention.
Contextual guesswork means making use of the context in which the word appears to derive an idea of its meaning, or in some cases, guess from the word itself, as in words of Latin origin. Knowledge of word formation, e.g. prefixes and suffixes, can also help guide students to discover meaning. Teachers can help students with specific techniques and practice in contextual guesswork, for example, the understanding of discourse markers and identifying the function of the word in the sentence (e.g. verb, adjective, noun). The latter is also very useful when using dictionaries.
Students should start using EFL dictionaries as early as possible, from intermediate upwards. With adequate training, dictionaries are an invaluable tool for learner, giving them independence from the teacher. As well as understanding meaning, students are able to check pronunciation, the grammer of the word (e.g. verb patterns, berb forms, plurality, comparatives, etc.), different spelling (American versus British), style and register, as well as examples thet illustrate usage.
Ø Using Language
Another strategy for advanced learners is to turn their receptive vocabulary items into productive ones. In order to do that, we need to refine their understanding of the item, exploring boundaries between conceptual meaning, polysemy, synonymy, style, register, possible collocations, etc. so that students are able to use the item accurately.
We must take into account that a lexical item is most likely to be learned when a learner feels a personal need to know it, or when there is a need to express something to accomplish the learner’s own purposes. Therefore, it means that the decision to incorporate a word in ones productive vocabulary is entirely personal and varies according to each student’s motivation and needs.
Logically, production will depend on motivation, and this is what teachers should aim at promoting, based on their awareness of students needs and preferences. Task-based learning should help teachers to provide authentic, meaningful tasks in which students engage to achieve a concrete output, using appropriate language for the context.
Ø The Lexical Approach
We could not talk about vocabulary teaching nowadays without mentioning Lewis (1993), whose controversial, thought-provoking ideas have been shaking the ELT world since its publication. We do not intend to offer a complete review of his work, but rather mention some of his contributions that in our opinion can be readily used in the classroom.
His most important contribution was to highlight the importance of vocabulary as being basic to communication. We do agree that if learners do not recognize the meaning of keywords they will be unable to participate in the conversation, even if they know the morphology and syntax. One the other hand, we believe that grammar is equally important in teaching, and therefore in our opinion, it is not the case to substitute grammar teaching with vocabulary teaching, but that both should be present in teaching a foreign language.
Lewis himself insists that his lexical approach is not simply a shift of emphasis from grammar to vocabulary teaching, as ‘language consists not of traditional grammar and vocabulary, but often of multi-word prefabricated chunks’ (Lewis, 1997). Chunks include collocations, fixed and semi-fixed expressions and idioms, and according to him, occupy a crucial role in facilitating language production, being the key to fluency.
An explanation for native speakers’ fluency is that vocabulary is not stored only as individual words, but also as parts of phrases and larger chunks, which can be retrieved from memory as a whole, reducing processing difficulties. On the other hand, learners who only learn individual words will need a lot more time and effort to express themselves.
Consequently, it is essential to make students aware of chunks, giving them opportunities to identify, organise and record these. Identifying chunks is not always easy, and at least in the beginning, students need a lot of guidance.
Hill (1999) explains that most learners with ‘good vocabularies’ have problems with fluency because their ‘collocation competence’ is very limited, and that, especially form Intermediate level, we should aim at increasing their collocation competence with the vocabulary they have already got. For Advance learners he also suggests building on what they already know, using better strategies and increasing the number of items they meet outside the classroom.
The idea of what it is to ‘know’ a word is also enriched with the collocation component. According to Lewis (1993) ‘being able to use a word involves mastering its collocation range and restrictions on that range’. I can say that using all the opportunities to teach chunks rather than isolated words is a feasible idea that has been working well in my classes, and which is fortunately coming up in new course books we are using. However, both teachers and learners need awareness raising activities to be able to identify multi-word chunks.
Apart from identifying chunks, it is important to establish clear ways of organizing and recording vocabulary. According to Lewis (1993), ‘language should be recorded together which characteristically occurs together’, which means not in a linear, alphabetical order, but in collocation tables, mind-maps, word trees, for example. He also suggests the recording of whole sentences, to help contextualization, and that storage of items is highly personal, depending on each student’s needs.
We have already mentioned the use of dictionaries as a way to discover meaning and foster learner independence. Lewis extends the use of dictionaries to focus on word grammar and collocation range, Although most dictionaries are rather limited in these.
Lewis also defends the use of ‘real’ or ‘authentic’ material from the early stages of learning, because ‘acquisition is facilitated by material which is only partly understood’ (Lewis, 1993, p. 186). Although he does not supply evidence for this, I agree that students need to be given tasks they can accomplish without understanding everything from a given text, because this is what they will need as users of the language. He also suggests that it is better to work intensively with short extracts of authentic material, so they are not too daunting for students and can be explored for collocations.
Finally, the Lexical Approach and Task-Based Learning have some common principles, which have been influencing foreign language teaching. Both approaches regard intensive, roughly-tuned input as essential for acquisition, and maintain that successful communication is more important than the production of accurate sentences. We certainly agree with these principles and have tried to use them in our class.
2.3 Rationale of the Lesson
We believe that the Lexical Approach has much to offer in the area of vocabulary teaching , and therefore we have tried to plan a lesson that is based on its main concepts, specially exploring the use of collocations.
2.3.1 Choice Of Material
As both the Task-based and the Lexical approach suggest, we wanted to use authentic material to expose our students to rich, contextualized, naturally- occurring language.
For the topic of holidays we chose a big number of holiday brochures (about twenty five) and read them through, trying to notice recurrent patterns of lexis. Confirming what will (1999) affirmed, this analysis showed us a large number of collocations, specially adjective + noun ones, and that some ware extremely common, such as golden sandy beaches, rolling countryside and others.
We did not want to overload students with much reading, which would detract them from the main task of working with vocabulary, and therefore we selected twenty-one short yet meaningful extracts in which common collocations appeared.
2.3.2. Noticing collocations and Dealing with Meaning
Although the extracts are authentic, we do not think students will have many problems in understanding most of the collocations, as they contain vocabulary which they probably know receptively. This again should confirm the idea that students know individual words but lack collocation competence.
We are going to work as a whole class in step 5 to make students aware of the collocations we will be focusing on, and hopefully this will enable students to find other collocations. Regular awareness raising activities like this should help students improve their collocation competence, and even fluency, as discussed in part 2.4
For the few words that we predict students will not fully understand meaning of, or are not sure how they are pronounced, we are going to ask them to look these up in monolingual dictionaries. As we said in part 2.2., dictionaries are a vital tool for Advanced learners, and so is contextual guesswork, which we are going to encourage before they look the words up. We3 are also going to ask students to notice examples given in the dictionary, observing and recording other possible collocations of the words, as suggested by Lewis.
We have also taken into account the importance of recording the vocabulary observed during the class. The list that students will produce in step 9, to prepare for the final task, is also a way of recording vocabulary in an organi9sed, personalized an meaningful way, as suggested by Lewis in part 2.4.
2.3.3. Group Work
Working in groups help fostering learning independence, and specially in vocabulary work, learners can exchange knowledge, asking others to explain unknown items.
We also hope that group work will be a motivating factor, as students talk about places they have been on holiday to, trying to remember details together, exchanging impressions and even good memories!
2.3.4. Choice of Task
As we said earlier in part 2.3, we find it vital that students are given opportunities to use the language they are learning in a realistic context. Therefore, we have devised the final task to meet this principle.
Writing a leaflet is a possible task in the Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English, which these students are preparing for. It is also a relevant, real life task that we expect will interest student. I always like to mention that the standard of leaflets written in English in Brazil is very poor, and that they could do a much better job.
We expect that this writing should also enable students to use the vocabulary they have studied in a realistic context, and that they could be motivated to learn even more vocabulary they feel they need to accomplish the task.
The completion of the final task for homework will also help to reinforce and revise the vocabulary learnt, giving students a better chance to store the items in their long-term memory, as we mentioned in part 2.1. We are going to explain what the final task will be right after step 3, in which they should notice what kind of text the extracts come from. By doing this we want to motivate students to do the enabling tasks, mainly to show them the need to learn new vocabulary.
As this is a borrowed group, it might be the case the students are not yet familiar with the leaflet format, in which case more input would be necessary before the conclusion of the final task.
If students are really interested in the task, this could be transformed into a project, involving research and the production of a leaflet or web page in the multi-media center.
2.4 Types of vocabulary
Ø Reading vocabulary
A person’s reading vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when reading. This is the largest type of vocabulary simply because it includes the other three.
Ø Listening vocabulary
A person’s listening vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when listening to speech. This vocabulary is aided in size by context and tone of voice.
Ø Writing vocabulary
A person’s writing vocabulary is all the words he or she an employ in writing. Contrary to the previous two vocabulary types, the writing vocabulary is stimulated by its user.
Ø Speaking vocabulary
A person’s speaking vocabulary is all the words he or she can use in speech. Due to the spontaneous nature of the speaking vocabulary, word are often misused. This misuse – though slight and unintentional – may be compensated by facial expressions, tone of voice, or hand gestures.
2.5 Teaching Whispering Game
A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong solitaire, or some Video Games).
Key components of games are goals, riles, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational or psychological role. According to Chris Crawford, the requirement for player interaction puts activities such as jigsaw puzzles and solitaire “games” into the category of puzzles rather than games.
Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games.
Divide the class into two teams. Line up the players. If there’s an odd number of players, one can be the teacher’s “helper”. The teacher or his helper whispers a message to the first person of both players know the message. Then each player whispers the message to the next player in his group sucessively until the last player gets the message. The team which can repeat the message first and correctly receives a point. Start the game over with the second student f each group becoming the first ones in line.
THE RESEARCH METOHODOLOG
3.1 Research Method
In writing this research, the data of materials were collected through field research. In this research the writer gave pre-test and post-test to student, the writer used quantitative method to know the level of students’ vocabulary
3..2 Research Design
The writer conducted this research by using per experimental design, it is important to get the valid data which related to the research in the improve vocabulary through whispering game, the writer used an experiment technique to collect data.
In addition the writer collected some information by doing literary study. In this case the writer collects information about te theories from many literatures that have relation with the topic chosen.
3.3 Population and sample
The writer took the seventh grade student of MTs. N Pasir Bungur as the population of this research and the writer took one class namely VII A which consist 40 students.
In order to take the sample, the writer took VII A which 40 students and divided into two groups, first as the experimental group, this group will get the treatment by whispering game to improve their vocabulary mastering and second as the controlled group without treatment, and both of the groups as a consist of 20 students.
3.4 Research Instrument
The writer did the experiment to second grade of SMP N 1 Wanasalam using whispering game with the text to improve students vocabulary mastering, the treatment was conducted for one week with two meeting, that consist of one time gave the pre-test in the first meeting, four times took the treatment and one time gave the post-test in the last meeting. The tests consist 30 items of vocabulary and oral question. Each items is given score 1 (One) if the answer is true and 0 (zero) if the answer is wrong.
3.5 Research Steps
The research steps is as follow :
Ø Choosing of problem
Ø Background of the study
Ø Problem formulation
Ø Basic opinion or assumption Formulation
Ø Hypothesis formulation
Ø Choosing of research design or approach
Ø Determining of variable
Ø Determining of data resource
Ø Determining and compiling of instrument
Ø Data collecting
Ø Data analysis
Ø Writing of research respond
3.6 Collecting Data Technique
The procedure of the research was conducted to three steps, they are:
In collecting the data, the first time that researcher doing is given a pre-test, the pre-test given to experimental group and control group. The researcher want to know the score of pre-test without using whispering game.
When the writer knows students’ score, the score are not impress him. But the writer focus to improve vocabulary mastering in experimental group using whispering game. The writer began to teach vocabulary through whispering game with vocabulary about things, such as things in the class room, part of body, animals, fruit, and the other based one the lesson theme. First, writer give vocabulary to students one by one and continue to other students. The last, the writer ask students about vocabulary was whispered.
The researcher given the post-test to experimental and control group. And the score of post-test would compared with pre-test by researcher.
The different score of post test in control group is the answer about this research, is the research worked great to improving vocabulary mastering.
3.7 Data Analysis Technique
The writer did the following steps :
a. Determining the formula analysis the data
b. Determining the formula of the standard error of difference between two means is.
c. Determining the formula of the standard deviation of the differences, is
d. Determining the formula for degree of freedom :
Df = n - 1
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